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Applications

Distributed data sensing and well profiling can be used to understand a huge variety of behaviours, events and anomalies throughout the lifecycle of a well. We can look to gather data which will help with both exploration, production and late life integrity challenges.

FLI is most commonly used for completion and production applications such as cement assurance, gas lift optimisation, sand detection or flow monitoring, however there are many more ways FLI can help, such as offset micro-seismic assessment for fracking or drilling and looking at leaks or corrosion. Below are just a few examples of activities where FLI can quickly and economically help you to make more informed decisions:

FiberLine Intervention Applications
Cement Assurance — Application data sheet — Download
Gas Lift Optimization
Leak Detection — Application data sheet — Download
Micro-Seismic Monitoring
Vertical Seismic Profiling
Directional Surveys
Stimulation Monitoring
Injectivity Testing
Fracture Diagnostics
Pressure/Temp/Flow/Fluid ID/Holdup
P&A Cement Cure

Examples of Passive FLI – Fiber Only Deployment

Allows DAS and DTS data to be recorded over the entirety of the deployed fiber.

FLI Type Commercial Operation Physical Measurement Value
DTS Cement Cure Qualification Multi-mode Required to validate cement quality throughout the curing process.
  Gas Lift Optimisation Multi-mode Measuring Joule-Thomson effect using to identify optimization of Co2 injection gas lift for EOR.
  Steam Injection - SAGD Multi-mode Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD; "Sag-D") for enhanced oil recovery of heavy crude oil and bitumen.
DAS Leak Detection Single-Mode Detection of casing, tubing, annulus, formation leaks via interpretation of acoustic signatures generated by the movement of fluid and gas.
  Micro-Seismic Single-Mode Hydraulic fracture monitoring from micro-seismic allows operators to improve production and avoid risks by identifying patterns of fluid movement, fracture development, connectivity, compaction and whether the frac and proppant are staying “in zone” or traveling “out of zone.”
  Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Single-Mode Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) survey with conventional geophones and provides interval velocities, time-depth relationship as well as images below the wells based on the reflected seismic rays. DAS VSP data has provided the opportunity of impacting asset performance.

Passive FLI + Passive Optical Sensors

Allows DAS and DTS data to be recorded over the entirety of the deployed fiber + bobbin single point passive optical measurements.

Multi-core fiber allows DAS, DTS and single point measurements to be run concurrently reducing measurement time and operational cost whilst increasing functionality.

FLI Type Commercial Operation Physical Measurement Value
DAS/DTS/Passive Pressure/Temp. Cement cure, gas lift optimization, SAGD, leak detection, microseismic, VSP, PT logging, flow profiling. Multi-core fiber (multi-mode, single-mode with additional single mode fibers to allow inclusion of single point optical pressure /temperature sensor. Allows greater functionality than passive FLI by incorporating multiple cores in a single fiber allowing DAS, DTS + single point bobbin measurements of pressure and temperature during freefall.
DAS/DTS/Passive Pressure/Temp, Optical Encoder, Differential Pressure, 3-Axis Accelerometer. Same as above but now enabling bobbin flow measurement, fluid ID and well trajectory measurements. Same as above with additional passive optical sensors. Same as above but now equivalent to wireline PLT measurements with the addition of distributed temperature and acoustic measurements.

Passive FLI + Passive Optical Sensors + Active FLI + Surface Acquisition + Horizontal Conveyance

Allows DAS and DTS data to be recorded over the entirety of the deployed fiber + bobbin single point passive optical measurements + active well integrity video and ID calliper measurements.

Multi-core fiber allows DAS, DTS and single point measurements + data transmission of active measurements and video to be run concurrently, reducing measurement time and operational cost whilst increasing functionality. Disposable tractor system for horizontal conveyance to TD and back.

FLI Type Commercial Operation Physical Measurement Value
Active FLI incorporating electronic casing collar locator (CCL), 4K video at 60 fps and digital caliper measurement. A wide range of completion, production logging and well integrity applications. Surveys can include fluid level detection, pressure and temperature gradients, pressure and temperature transient analysis and flow/ holdup profiling. The use of multiple fibers allows depth correlation via active magnetic CCL measurement and full band, real-time streaming of 4K video. ID caliper measurements are achieved via LVDT displacement. Unprocessed digitised data from sondes is transmitted via optical fiber whilst concurrent DAS and DTS data is transmitted through multiple fibers. Allows visual, measured and quantified well integrity inspection in addition to passive single point measurements and DAS and DTS. Full replacement of wireline production logging data with the benefit of distributed temperature and acoustic logging.
API LAS standard surface data acquisition system. All as above. Real-time data capture through optical fiber, decoded to LAS format, to be Windows piped into Warrior and Kappa Emeraud 3rd party logging software for advanced interpretation. Allows all active measurement data to be imported into all 3rd party, industry standard, logging and interpretation software.
FLI Tractor Conveyance. Additional access to all highly deviated and horizontal well completions. Electric motored tractoring of the FLI system to TD. FLI no longer restricted to vertical or slightly deviated wells. Allows bobbin to be retrieved at surface post operation.

Acrylate (Standard Environment)

Tool Diameter Max Fibre Length (Feet) Max Fibre Length (Metres)
1 1200 366
1 5/8 2150 655
2 14000 4267
2 3/8 15000 4572
2 3/4 15000 4572
3 1/2 30000 9144
Acrylate (Standard Environment) Acrylate (Standard Environment)

Polyimide (Extreme Harsh Environments)

Tool Diameter Max Fibre Length (Feet) Max Fibre Length (Metres)
1 2500 762
1 5/8 4000 1219
2 20000 6096
2 3/8 25000 7620
2 3/4 25000 7620
3 1/2 45000 13716
Polyimide (Extreme Harsh Environments) Polyimide (Extreme Harsh Environments)